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tim_uk

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Reply with quote  #1 
In my recent posts, you'll have seen many references to all-tobacco cigarettes, as opposed to paper-wrapper cigarettes. This thread will pull together some of that information and add to it, with a new potential earliest cigarette card insert which, I believe, was being printed alongside the Thomas H Hall Between the Acts cards. But first a recap.

The Marquis of Lorne brand by American News Company (late 1879) was all-tobacco, launched alongside a paper-wrapped brand, Duke of Marlborough. Note that the MoL came in 'neat paper boxes', whilst the Marlborough was 'packed in leatherette packages'.

But the Between the Acts brand by Thos. H. Hall (patent filed May 1877) was in circulation in early 1877, over two years earlier than MoL. We also know the less successful Bravo brand by Hall was paper-wrapped when launched in early 1878 (it was subsequently relaunched in 1890 as all-tobacco, still unsuccessful).

In 1878, Joseph Sichel ceased trading and was taken over by B Pollak, who retained the successful Marquis all-tobacco brand, whilst launching the paper-wrapped Satsuma brand. Pollak's business ran through most of 1878/1879, but went out of business in January 1880. It was this Sichel/Pollak Marquis brand that contained cards (N513) printed by Jos Koehler, who subsequently used the design for the MoL card (N519) in late 1879. This Marquis design was itself a clear copy of the Thomas Hall actress design - both front and back (MoL has a blank back).

Importantly, the all-tobacco cigarettes are the premium brand, with paper-wrapped being the cheaper mainstream cigarette, at this time (1877-1879). This premium branding and higher price provided the opportunity for insert cards (and their additional cost) to be included and their price to be absorbed in the premium price. And, in a clear counter to the idea of cards being stiffeners, for these earliest insert cards to work, they were included in the cigarette boxes being used for these all-tobacco premium brands. Insert cards started out when all-tobacco premium cigarettes (and their accompanying boxes) made their entry.

As we saw in the post on cigarette boxes, it was not until the mid-1880s, around 8 years later, that Duke introduced the cigarette box to the cheaper paper-wrapped cigarettes in an economical way. Paving the way for A&G, Kinney, Kimball, Goodwin to follow suit shortly afterwards. And for insert cards to take off into the mass market. Meanwhile we can trace the cigarette box patents and companies through the Climax Box, Whiting Company and the work of the Munson brothers, through this early period of 1877-1885 (see post on cigarette boxes).


I attach below, relevant pictures from previous posts, on these three all-tobacco cigarette brands, along with their paper-wrapper counterpart:

2. Clipper zoom.jpg  3. Clipper page.jpg  Bravo advert - 23 March 1878.jpg  Pollak advert 1879.jpg


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tim_uk

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Reply with quote  #2 
So, if all-tobacco cigarettes are important, when and where did they come from?

I found this article this morning, which provides a fascinating insight. It confirms his father's firm (founded by Joseph Hall, who arrived in the US from the UK, as a young man) was passed down to Thomas H Hall, and also an additional brand "Behind the Scenes", which was never patented and, presumably, was short-lived.

In other posts, we are now starting to piece together that the first insert cards by Thomas H Hall, the 14 card series (Hall's on the front), was not introduced until a bit later, perhaps as late as November 1877, with clear references to 7 of those cards (possibly more) and possibly in an early blank back version (although my instinct says the earliest 7+ cards had printed backs - we'll come back to this).

The article ends by referring to further brands to come. In my post on Thomas Hall patents/trademarks, you can see the full list from this early period - Between the Acts, Bravo, El Dramatico (patented as just Dramatico, under "D" in some alphabetical listings) and Rose of Egypt.

all tobacco cigarette article - 21 March 1877.jpg      




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tim_uk

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Reply with quote  #3 
So, if all-tobacco cigarettes were new in 1877, who invented them? And when?

I haven't yet pinned this down, the patents are time-consuming to trace though. And, in fact, I'm not sure they were patented anyway, otherwise we would see all sorts of mention of this, as we do with the early cigarette boxes - which were relatively easy to trace.

But on 11 April 1877, two companies launched their all-tobacco cigarettes in Tobacco Leaf, with adverts that then repeated regularly (unchanged) for several months. The cuttings are shown below:

all tobacco cigarette article - 11 April 1877 - Hall and Moonelis.jpg


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tim_uk

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Reply with quote  #4 
The race to produce these new all-tobacco cigarettes was on. Here's an advert from 13 June 1877 showing (what I assume to be) the main players in mid-1877.

Note the Our Little Beauties brand by John F. Allen, around 4 - 5 years before the brand was trademarked under the combined Allen & Ginter firm. I believe this brand to be the first insert card known in the UK, in 1882 (further post to follow), in line with CRB151.

Also note that Joseph Sichel wasn't yet marketing Marquis at this point (I need to double-check this point) - and the firm hadn't been passed over to B Pollak (this transfer happening in early 1878).

all tobacco cigarette article - 13 June 1877 advert.jpg 




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tim_uk

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Reply with quote  #5 
So, we've discussed Thomas H Hall (N342 cards) a lot. And we know about Sichel transferring to Pollak (N513 cards).

What about Adolph Moonelis - with card N784, Comic Scenes, with Matanzas branding? There are only 2 known cards, per CRB 151, see the picture below.

That back looks familiar doesn't it? 

12. Moonelis Matanzas.jpg 



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tim_uk

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Reply with quote  #6 
Here's the 4 similar backs next to each other.

It looks very much like the Matanzas design is a Heppenheimer & Maurer, the same as the two early straight backs on the Thomas H Hall cards. The Joseph Koehler version for Pollak is similar but distinctly different.

Four backs from 1877 and 1878.jpg 





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tim_uk

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Reply with quote  #7 
In his entry in Tobacco Leaf on 11 April 1877, Moonelis claims to be the "first in this city" (referring to New York) to have made cigarettes without paper. Presumably someone outside New York had been making these all tobacco cigarettes even earlier.

Moonelis advertises his Mantanzas brand until later in 1877, when his adverts stop and his entry in the New York listing alongside Thomas H Hall also ceases. I haven't yet found out why - still looking.

But, if we make a leap and assume that Matanzas were stopped later in 1877, then these cards (N784) would have been inserted with his cigarettes prior to November 1877 when we see the actress cards of Thomas H Hall seemingly emerging. That would make Moonelis the first manufacturer to include picture cards inserted with his cigarettes. 

We don't have the full facts to draw this conclusion, but it fits the information available. In which case, Moonelis was seemingly working with Heppenheimer & Maurer (H&M) on insert cards prior to Thomas H Hall. Maybe H&M then suggested the idea to Thomas Hall?

Anyone got any more clues or facts to contribute?

Has anyone out there got one of these N784 cards with higher resolution pictures they can provide?

Coincidentally (maybe), the first advert for Moonelis in Tobacco Leaf (11 April 1877) was placed alongside the (regular, monthly) Heppenheimer & Maurer advert, as shown below:

Matanzas and H and M.jpg


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tim_uk

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Reply with quote  #8 
Moonelis appears, fleetingly, in references over many years - none of which talk to Mantanzas (that I've found).

During the 1880s he seemed to keep his cigar making business going on a low volume scale. He seemed to pick up again later on, as a manager in the ATC. And contributed as an inventor on various tobacco related inventions, in the 1890s. Here's an extract from a relevant one, showing how to cut tobacco leafs for all-tobacco cigarette wrappers:

Moonelis patent extract 1894.jpg


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moviecard

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Reply with quote  #9 
From Tom Boblitt's picture of the Burdick album page with the Marquis of Lorne card, the N518 Morning Dawn card looks a lot like Tim's group of 4 cards shown above. The N515 New World card on the same album page also looks similar in design to all these old cards. Those two should probably be studied as well to try to determine their age, they are probably from the same era it looks like. I'd like to see bigger pictures of both of those cards if Tom can enlarge those.
teza

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Reply with quote  #10 
Great work Tim!  You probably should have been a detective if you're not.

Feels a lot like a horse race.  With each post the position of "who's in first" seems to shift.

With all this work a visual timeline would be great.  Joe G put something together for the A&G series.

Troy had some good suggestions for the other early contenders.  I always thought that Robert Ulmer's N539 Pallaso cigarettes series had to be one of the earlier issues.  From what I see below they were probably not inserted until sometime after March 1879.

Jeff

Pallaso Patent.jpg  N539 Ben Franklin c.jpg 

fallbrookjack

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Reply with quote  #11 
In that Pallaso card, old Ben looks like he's been hitting the sauce.

This isn't in my area of interest, but you fellows are sure digging in deep.  Good work.  - Jack J.
tim_uk

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Reply with quote  #12 
Oh no, the floodgates are opening!

Looks like there are some other contenders....

Jeff, I'd looked at Robert Ulmer (N539) previously and struggled to pin him down to a date. Yours looks like a great spot on the patent list and potentially pre-dates MoL too. Your picture of Ben Franklin looks like an unlisted one. CRB151 lists 6 known, plus 2 in the supplement, plus yours = 9 known. Looks like there are at least two backs, that look very similar. The one shown in CRB151 has lithographer Charles A Wulff (New York). Yours is W. Saul (William Saul, NY). Both lithographers check out against Jay Last Colour Explosion. Some more useful info for CRB 151 updates. Interesting that the Ulmer back design looks quite a bit like the curved back design on Between the Acts, which appeared about this time (around late 1879/1880). And obviously the front is another Hall lookalike.

Troy, on N518, Morning Dawn Cigarette at La Belle Creole Cigar Factory, S. Hernsheim & Bro, earliest I can find on the cigarette from a quick search is August 1880 (advert below). For N518 there is only one known card (per CRB 151), so it could have been a non-insert giveaway. Interestingly, CRB 151 notes that this card looks like Thomas H Hall N342 (by reference to H070-050/080) - another 'copy' of Thomas H Hall, perhaps (like Pollok), making it post-Hall on the dateline I would suggest.

On N515, New World Cigarettes, nothing comes up on a quick search. Again, CRB 151 states only one known card. And can provide no more information on this brand.

Notably, none of these cards look like the Montanzas comic scene front - so whatever Moonelis was doing, he wasn't trying to copy Thomas H Hall. Perhaps another clue that Moonelis was first, Hall was second with the actresses and others followed (perhaps in an experimental, low volume way) with card inserts in similar styles to Hall (Pollak, Ulmer, Hernsheim, American News Co)?

Le Belle Creole and Morning Dawn - N518 and N515.jpg  Le Belle Creole and Morning Dawn 2 - N518 and N515.jpg 



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tim_uk

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Reply with quote  #13 
And, while we're discussing lookalike early cards, here's the ultimate copy of Thomas H Hall's Between the Acts brand, from January 1881, set N406 Marburg, with pictures courtesy of Todd's nonsport.com site. There are 10 known subjects (per CRB 151), with 9 illustrated below.

Note the 'ten minutes' = between the acts reference! Something I wasn't aware of until I saw this launch advert for the cigarettes from Tobacco Leaf.

The person responsible for the cards has clearly copied the subjects as well as providing an equivalent title for the cigarettes!

Note that they too are all-tobacco cigarettes.

Marburg 10 minutes.jpg 



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tim_uk

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Reply with quote  #14 
Quote:
Originally Posted by tim_uk
…….
The Marquis of Lorne brand by American News Company (late 1879) was all-tobacco, launched alongside a paper-wrapped brand, Duke of Marlborough. Note that the MoL came in 'neat paper boxes', whilst the Marlborough was 'packed in leatherette packages'.
2. Clipper zoom.jpg     


In a previous quote I mentioned the MoL reference in Burdick's CCB issue #109, August 1957. It seems he actually published the original research note on MoL all the way back in issue #50, October 1947. Here's the CCB reference, for completeness. Burdick astutely notes the card as being "of the Hall Actress type".

Burdick MoL Oct 1947 #50.jpg


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tim_uk

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Reply with quote  #15 
Some further info on N518, Hernsheim, Morning Dawn. This is listed as 'one known' in CRB151 and Todd's site. We have an example card on the same Burdick page as MoL (shown above). Todd has another card shown on his Non-sport site (from a Mastro Auction). Martin Murray has another card shown in CRB151. And I've just seen another on ebay (quite pricey), with the same design. So, the likelihood is that only one design was published. Unless you know differently?

The latest example on ebay is in very nice condition, see picture below, showing both the front and the back in typical Thomas Hall style.

The advert above for Morning Dawn is from August 1880, but the card could have been earlier or later than this. The latest card shown below has a clear lithographic company printer shown as Empire Lithographic and Engraving Company, New York. This company (according to The Color Explosion, by Jay Last) started in 1879 and changed name in 1884, to Heffron & Phelps.

So, it seems there is a possible window for this card of 1879-1884. Given the back is in the straight back style that Thomas H Hall used, not the curved back style which was used from around 1880, my guess would be that this narrows the printing to around 1879-1880, possibly 1881. Still 2+ years after Thomas H Hall started printing cards in 1877, but still a very early card.

N518 Hernsheim - Morning Dawn - ebay Sept 2019 $475.jpg


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Matt_Z

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Reply with quote  #16 
Quote:
Originally Posted by tim_uk


In 1878, Joseph Sichel ceased trading and was taken over by B Pollak, who retained the successful Marquis all-tobacco brand, whilst launching the paper-wrapped Satsuma brand. Pollak's business ran through most of 1878/1879, but went out of business in January 1880. It was this Sichel/Pollak Marquis brand that contained cards (N513) printed by Jos Koehler, who subsequently used the design for the MoL card (N519) in late 1879. This Marquis design was itself a clear copy of the Thomas Hall actress design - both front and back (MoL has a blank back).

Importantly, the all-tobacco cigarettes are the premium brand, with paper-wrapped being the cheaper mainstream cigarette, at this time (1877-1879). This premium branding and higher price provided the opportunity for insert cards (and their additional cost) to be included and their price to be absorbed in the premium price. And, in a clear counter to the idea of cards being stiffeners, for these earliest insert cards to work, they were included in the cigarette boxes being used for these all-tobacco premium brands. Insert cards started out when all-tobacco premium cigarettes (and their accompanying boxes) made their entry.

As we saw in the post on cigarette boxes, it was not until the mid-1880s, around 8 years later, that Duke introduced the cigarette box to the cheaper paper-wrapped cigarettes in an economical way. Paving the way for A&G, Kinney, Kimball, Goodwin to follow suit shortly afterwards. And for insert cards to take off into the mass market. Meanwhile we can trace the cigarette box patents and companies through the Climax Box, Whiting Company and the work of the Munson brothers, through this early period of 1877-1885 (see post on cigarette boxes).


Pollak advert 1879.jpg


Not sure if I've seen this in any of Tim's posts/discussions re earliest insert cards & all tobacco cigarettes etc.
It was in the July 15th 1878 edition of The Tobacco Leaf.

I assume the image is the actual packet/box design for the Sichel/Pollack Marquis all tobacco cigarettes that contained N513?
B. Pollak advertisement but still has manufactured by J.M Sichel on the box. 

 
Screenshot 2020-05-17 at 20.35.20.png 


 






tim_uk

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Reply with quote  #17 
Hi Matt,

I did post a series of 3 adverts showing the Sichel -> Pollak boxes progression in the post here:
https://forum.vintagenonsports.com/post/show_single_post?pid=1308538604&postcount=14&forum=627991

But since then, I've dug up an additional snippet on J M Sichel (immediately below), plus I've posted the 3 adverts again below (your snippet is the middle one).

The J M Sichel Marquis cigarette brand (available prior to August 1877) was the forerunner to the Marquis of Lorne card, via the N513 B Pollak Marquis cigarettes cards and Joseph Koehler, the printer they had in common.

Sichel 2.jpg  Sichel.jpg 
5. Pollak cigarette packets.jpg 




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nscards

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Reply with quote  #18 
Nice work as usual Tim - 
Having now returned to New Orleans, I took interest in your insights about the 'Morning Dawn' card. I was able to find this article concerning the "Belle Creole Cigar Factory" (oddly enough, probably created by someone at the law firm that now occupies the building).

https://www.neworleansbar.org/uploads/files/La%20Belle%20Creole%20Article%20Revised.pdf

It would suggest that the window of issue for "Morning Dawn" (N518) is more likely 1882-84.

By the way, the 'Columns Hotel' on St. Charles is quite a place to sip a nightcap on the veranda or catch 'Jazz Brunch' on a Sunday...been there many times.

https://thecolumns.com

Normally at this time there would be huge gatherings in their front yard for graduations photos, etc. (sadly not this year)

Ironically, the movie "Pretty Baby", starring a 12 year-old Brooke Shields as a prostitute, was shot at this hotel in the early 1970s. Kind of spooky, when you look at the image on the card....maybe there's a connection?

Chris

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tim_uk

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Reply with quote  #19 
Hi Chris,

This is an interesting article, thanks for posting. In the article the new building on the corner of Magazine and Julia Street (755 Magazine) was erected in 1882. This corresponds to the address that Hernsheim advertised in the snippet below from 1884.

But I think both the card back and the advert (above) showing Morning Dawn is the earlier sales and manufacturing addresses (slightly obscured in the advert), so would place the card before the new building, i.e. pre-1882.

Here's some adverts from 1884, 1881 and 1880. Its the sales address from 1880 and Sept 1881 (85-87 Gravier St, 28-30 Magazine St), that shows up on the back of the card and the advert above for Morning Dawn. But by December 1881 the sales address had changed.

I think we can therefore narrow the card down to 1879-1881. The 1879 corresponding to the litho company and the (late) 1881 date is when the sales office moved to Tchoupitoulas St, close to the old factory, before the new factory was erected in 1882. 

Hernsheim 1884 address.jpg Hernsheim 1881 address.jpg   

Hernsheim 1880 address.jpg  Hernsheim 1881 old address.jpg 


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Matt_Z

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Reply with quote  #20 
Quote:
Originally Posted by tim_uk
Hi Matt,

I did post a series of 3 adverts showing the Sichel -> Pollak boxes progression in the post here:
https://forum.vintagenonsports.com/post/show_single_post?pid=1308538604&postcount=14&forum=627991




Thanks Tim.
I re read several of your recent threads before posting but obviously overlooked that one.
nscards

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Reply with quote  #21 
Tim - 

You're right. I got so excited about identifying the factory name that it didn't even occur to me to check the different street addresses on Julia vs. Gravier Streets (which happen to be 6 blocks apart)."La Belle Creole" was probably such a good seller that any factory that the company was producing them at would have likely been referred to by that name. Your detective work illustrates that the card issue must predate the 1882 move of the company's production facility....which surely didn't get built overnight, so a 1879-80 spot for the issue seems about right.

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tim_uk

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Reply with quote  #22 
Hi Chris,
Coincidentally, whilst looking at the dateline for Hernsheim / Belle Creole, I stumbled upon a cigar name that looked familiar. Perhaps the MoL all tobacco cigarettes (also known as small cigars) made an earlier appearance than 'late 1879' previously considered to be the first mention of MoL.

MoL - Jan 1879.jpg 


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